Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effect of Tissue Glue (Octyl 2-Cyanoacrylate) on H9C2 Cardiomyoblast Cells Using Extract Dilution Assay


1 Department Pediatrics Cardiology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IR Iran

2 Department of Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran

3 Department of Biostatistics, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IR Iran

4 Innovative Medical Research Center, Department of Biochemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IR Iran


Background: Recently, Tissue Glue or Octyl 2-Cyanoacrylate (OCA) has been extensively used in cardiac surgeries as surgical adhesives to replace sutures. Since the binder is in contact with live tissues, its tissue compatibility and non-cytotoxicity have major effect on enhancing the healing process. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of OCA on rat cardiomyoblast cell (H9C2) using MTT assay. Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of the OCA extract. Then, morphological changes of the cultured cells were observed by light microscopy and their cytotoxicity by MTT assay. The morphology quality of the cells and their quantity were examined after 24- hour incubation up to 72 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by the ANOVA. Results: The results showed that the percentage of survived cells amount of extract dilution ratio (1:4; 1:2; 1) were 80.4%; 79.6%, 77.5% respectively. Analysis of statistical test results does not show any significant differences between the optical density of the extract dilutions, and the control group indicating; consequently it has no significant cytotoxicity effect on the cells. Conclusions: The outcome of this study is that the OCA has no toxic effect on H9C2 cells.


  1. 1.Shoshani OJ, Caminer D. The use of octyl-2-cyanoarylate (Dermanbond) in plastic surgery. ANZ J Surg. 2005;75:89–97.

    1. Petrie EM. Handbook of adhesives and sealants. New York: McGrawHill; 2000. p. 354.
    2. Paller AS. A new tissue adhesive for laceration repair in children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;41(5 Pt 1):767. [PubMed: 10534642]
    3. Oto A, Aytemir K, Deniz A. New approach to septal ablation: glue (cyanoacrylate) septal ablation. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2007;69(7):1021–5. doi: 10.1002/ccd.21003. [PubMed: 17525960]
    4. Klenovich ON, Vetrova AM. Filled cyanoacrylate adhesive compositions. Polym Sci Series C. 2007;49(1):50–1. doi: 10.1134/ S1811238207010110.
    5. Leggat PA, Kedjarune U. Medical and dental applications of cyanoacrylate adhesives: a review of toxicity. J Occup Health Safety. 1999;15:373–8. 7. Liu Y, Peterson DA, Kimura H, Schubert D. Mechanism of cellular 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction. J Neurochem. 1997;69(2):581–93. [PubMed: 9231715]
    6. ISO 10993-10 Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices.Tests for Irritation and Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity, . 2002.
    7. Carmichael J, DeGraff WG, Gazdar AF, Minna JD, Mitchell JB. Evaluation of a tetrazolium-based semiautomated colorimetric assay: assessment of radiosensitivity. Cancer Res. 1987;47(4):943–6. [PubMed: 3802101]
    8. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods. 1983;65(1-2):55–63. [PubMed: 6606682]
    9. Scuderi N, Dessy LA, Buccheri EM, Marchetti F, Mazzocchi M, Chiummariello S. Phase 2 cross-over Mmulticenter trial on the efficacy and safety of topical cyanoacrylates compared with topical silicone Gel in the prevention of pathologic scars. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2010;16(5):24–48.
    10. Scuderi N, Dessy LA, Mazzocchi M, Chiummariello S, Onesti MG. Efficacy of topical cyanoacrylates compared to topical silicone gel in the treatment of hypertrophic scars. In Vivo. 2010;24(4):591–7. [PubMed: 20668330]
    11. Taravella MJ, Chang CD. 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate medical adhesive in treatment of a corneal perforation. Cornea. 2001;20(2):220–1. doi: 10.1097/00003226-200103000-00024. [PubMed: 11248835]
    12. Murrmann SG, Markowitz JS, Gutterman EM, Magee G. Postoperative outcomes associated with topical skin adhesives among women having hysterectomies. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2010;11(5):441–7. doi: 10.1089/sur.2009.032. [PubMed: 20673145]
    13. Kimes BW, Brandt BL. Properties of a clonal muscle cell line from rat heart. Exp Cell Res. 1976;98(2):367–81. [PubMed: 943302]
    14. Yeo Y, Burdick JA, Highley CB, Marini R, Langer R, Kohane DS. Peritoneal application of chitosan and UV-cross-linkable chitosan. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006;78(4):668–75. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.30740. [PubMed: 16739173]
    15. Zhang Y, Zhu S, Yin L, Qian F, Tang C, Yin C. Preparation, characterization and biocompatibility of poly (ethylene glycol) poly (nbuthyl cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules with oil core via miniemulsion polymerization. Eur Polym J. 2008;44:1654–61. doi: 10.1016/j. eurpolymj.2008.03.019.
    16. Levy AP, Levy NS, Goldberg MA. Post-transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by hypoxia. J Biol Chem. 1996;271(5):2746–53. [PubMed: 8576250]
    17. Ciapetti G, Stea S, Cenni E, Sudanese A, Marraro D, Toni A, et al. Cytotoxicity testing of cyanoacrylates using direct contact assay on cell cultures. Biomaterials. 1994;15(1):63–7. [PubMed: 8161661]
    18. Ciapetti G, Stea S, Cenni E, Sudanese A, Marraro D, Toni A, et al. Toxicity of cyanoacrylates in vitro using extract dilution assay on cell cultures. Biomaterials. 1994;15(2):92–6. [PubMed: 8011865]