Epidemiology of Tobacco and Substance Abuse Among University Students in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran, in 2008

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

Research Center for HIV/AIDS, HTLV and Viral Hepatitis, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, IR Iran

10.30483/rijm.2015.118385

Abstract

Background: Risky behaviors such as tobacco and substance abuse, which often begin in adolescence, have been considered as the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Objectives: This study was designed to assess the frequency of tobacco smoking, substance abuse and alcohol consumption among students of a university in Mashhad, Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 944 university students in Mashhad were randomly selected from 11 faculties with 12183 students in 2008 and filled out a self-administer questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log rank statistics were used to evaluate the mean initiation age of the behaviors. Logistic regression analysis was performed for the prediction of the behaviors using SPSS software. Results: The overall frequency of smoking, alcohol drinking and substance abuse among students were 18.9%, 9.6% and 4.7%, respectively. Among students with a history of smoking, 69% had started smoking before 20 years of age. Moreover, 69.9% of individuals with a history of alcohol consumption and 56.5% of those with a history of substance abuse had reported their first use before 20 years of age. Older and human sciences students had a higher possibility to smoke tobacco (OR = 2.31 and OR = 1.27, respectively) and drink alcohol (OR = 2.20 and OR = 1.40, respectively). Conclusions: Present study demonstrated that the frequency of tobacco and substance abuse is considerable among Iranian university students who thought to be more knowledgeable and concerned about their health. Thus, efficient educational programs are needed to reduce the high-risk behaviors before students enter to university.

Keywords


  1. 1.Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin S, Flint KH, Hawkins J, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2011. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2012;61(4):1–162.

    1. Mahfouz MS, Alsanosy RM, Gaffar AM, Makeen A. Tobacco use among university students of Jazan Region: gender differences and associated factors. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:279231.
    2. Centers for Disease C, Prevention. Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses--United States, 2000-2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(45):1226–8. Hedayati-Moghaddam MR et al. Razavi Int J Med. 2015;3(3):e27085 23
    3. Mohammadpoorasl A, Ghahramanloo AA, Allahverdipour H, Augner C. Substance abuse in relation to religiosity and familial support in Iranian college students. Asian J Psychiatr. 2014;9:41–4. 5. Torabi MR, Yang J, Li J. Comparison of tobacco use knowledge, attitude and practice among college students in China and the United States. Health Promot Int. 2002;17(3):247–53.
    4. Babikian T, Freier MC, Hopkins GL, DiClemente R, McBride D, Riggs M. An assessment of HIV/AIDS risk in higher education students in Yerevan, Armenia. AIDS Behav. 2004;8(1):47–61.
    5. Aryal UR. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among the college students of Kathmandu Valley. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences (ISSN 2091-0576). 2014;1(2):53–8.
    6. Zivari-Rahman M, Lesani M, Shokouhi-Moqaddam S. Comparison of Mental Health, Aggression and Hopefulness between Student Drug-Users and Healthy Students (A Study in Iran). Addict Health. 2012;4(1-2):36–42.
    7. Gledhill-Hoyt J, Lee H, Strote J, Wechsler H. Increased use of marijuana and other illicit drugs at US colleges in the 1990s: results of three national surveys. Addiction. 2000;95(11):1655–67.
    8. Strote J, Lee JE, Wechsler H. Increasing MDMA use among college students: results of a national survey. J Adolesc Health. 2002;30(1):64–72.
    9. O'Malley PM, Johnston LD. Epidemiology of alcohol and other drug use among American college students. J Stud Alcohol Suppl. 2002;(14):23–39.
    10. Akvardar Y, Demiral Y, Ergor G, Ergor A, Bilici M, Akil Ozer O. Substance use in a sample of Turkish medical students. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003;72(2):117–21.
    11. Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291(10):1238–45.
    12. Brown JL, Vanable PA. Alcohol use, partner type, and risky sexual behavior among college students: Findings from an event-level study. Addict Behav. 2007;32(12):2940–52.
    13. Rahimi Movaghar A, Sahimi Izadian E, Younesian M. [A systematic review of drug abuse condition among Iranian university students]. Payesh Seasonly. 2006;2:83–104.
    14. World Drug Report. Available from: http://www.unodc.org.
    15. Atwoli L, Mungla PA, Ndung'u MN, Kinoti KC, Ogot EM. Prevalence of substance use among college students in Eldoret, western Kenya. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:34.
    16. Tesfaye G, Derese A, Hambisa MT. Substance Use and Associated Factors among University Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Addict. 2014;2014:969837.
    17. Jakubiec D, Kilcer A, Sager W. The War on drugs. RIT: College of Liberal Arts 2009. 2009. Available from: http://scholarworks.rit.edu/ cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2664&context=article.
    18. Abbasi-Shavazi MJ. Return to Afghanistan?: A Study of Afghans Living in Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran. Afghanistan: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit; 2005.
    19. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: National College Health Risk Behavior Survey-United States, 1995. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1997;46(6):1–56.
    20. Jafari F, Haji Zamani A, Alizadeh K. Reviewing the prevalence of (cigarette) smoking and its related factors in students of tehran university, iran. Addict Health. 2011;3(3-4):105–10.
    21. Nasirian M, Ziaaddini H, Asadollahi S. Smoking intensity and its relation to general health of the students of kerman university of medical sciences, iran. Addict Health. 2013;5(3-4):102–7.
    22. Nazary AA, Ahmadi F, Vaismoradi M, Kaviani K, Arezomandi M, Faghihzadeh S. Smoking among male medical sciences students in Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2010;16(2):156–61.
    23. Taheri E, Ghorbani A, Salehi M, Sadeghnia HR. Cigarette smoking behavior and the related factors among the students of mashhad university of medical sciences in iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015;17(1):e16769.
    24. Eisenberg M, Wechsler H. Substance use behaviors among college students with same-sex and opposite-sex experience: results from a national study. Addict Behav. 2003;28(5):899–913.
    25. Arliss RM. Cigarette smoking, binge drinking, physical activity, and diet in 138 Asian American and Pacific Islander community college students in Brooklyn, New York. J Community Health. 2007;32(1):71–84.
    26. Berg CJ, Klatt CM, Thomas JL, Ahluwalia JS, An LC. The relationship of field of study to current smoking status among college students. College Student Journal. 2009;43(3):744.
    27. Ghafouri N, Hirsch JD, Heydari G, Morello CM, Kuo GM, Singh RF. Waterpipe smoking among health sciences university students in Iran: perceptions, practices and patterns of use. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4:496.
    28. Berg CJ, Aslanikashvili A, Djibuti M. A cross-sectional study examining youth smoking rates and correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:476438.
    29. Liu A, Kilmarx P, Jenkins RA, Manopaiboon C, Mock PA, Jeeyapunt S, et al. Sexual initiation, substance use, and sexual behavior and knowledge among vocational students in northern Thailand. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2006;32(3):126–35.
    30. Griffiths S, Lau JT, Chow JK, Lee SS, Kan PY, Lee S. Alcohol use among entrants to a Hong Kong University. Alcohol Alcohol. 2006;41(5):560–5.
    31. Yamamoto K. Cross-sectional study on attitudes toward sex and sexual behavior among Japanese college students. J Physiol Anthropol. 2006;25(3):221–7.
    32. Siam SH. [Prevalence of drug use among male students of different universities of Rasht in 2005]. Ttabibe Shargh. 2006;8(4):279–85.
    33. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2011 national survey on drug use and health: summary of national findings. NSDUH Series H-44, HHS Publication No (SMA); 2012.