Trend of Antibiotic Resistance Among Acinetobacter spp. Strains Isolated From Wound Infections in Ghaem University Hospital in Northeast of Iran From 2005 to 2011

Document Type : Original Article


Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran



Background: Acinetobacter has become an important cause of different infections such as wound infection, due to its great ability to survive and spread in hospital settings and to develop resistance against many antibiotics. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance among isolates of Acinetobacter from wound infections during a 7-year period, from 2005 to 2011, in Ghaem University Hospital, Mashhad. Patients and Methods: During this period, patients with nosocomial wound infections were identified according to national nosocomial infections surveillance system (NNIS) and appropriate samples were taken from their wounds. Furthermore, microbiological procedures were performed to identify the bacterial strains causing the infection. Antibiotic susceptibility of Acinetobacter isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: Based on the guideline, 324 cases of infection were identified and 43 samples of Acinetobacter strains were isolated. During this 7-year period, the resistance to kanamycin and norfloxacin was increased among these 43 samples. However, the resistance against ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cefexime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, cefazolin, gentamicin, and ceftizoxime was not significantly increased. The overall bacterial resistance was high. The pick of Acinetobacter species was observed in 2006 and 2007. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated a high antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter species isolated from wound infections. The increased resistance to antibiotics such as kanamycin and norfloxacin was due to their vast application in treatments. Moreover, the decreased resistance to other noted antibiotics was probably due to their low application.


  1. 1.Gaur A, Garg A, Prakash P, Anupurba S, Mohapatra TM. Observations on carbapenem resistance by minimum inhibitory concentration in nosocomial isolates of Acinetobacter species: an experience at a tertiary care hospital in North India. J Health Popul Nutr. 2008;26(2):183–8.

    1. Borriello SP, Murray PR, Funke G. Topley & Wilsons microbiology & microbial infections.London: Edward Arnold Ltd; 2005.
    2. Medic D, Ukropina MM, Gusman V, Jelesic Z, Milosavljevic B. [Carbapenems resistance of Acinetobacter spp strains isolated from wound swabs during 2009-2010]. Med Pregl. 2011;64(11-12):583–7.
    3. Brooks GF, Carroll KC, Butel JS, Morse SA. Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg`s Medical microbiology.United States of America: McGraw-Hill Companies; 2007.
    4. Falagas ME, Rafailidis PI. Attributable mortality of Acinetobacter baumannii: no longer a controversial issue. Crit Care. 2007;11(3):134.
    5. Betty A, Forbes DF, Sahm AS. Weissfeld, BAILEY &SCOTT'S Diagnostic Microbiology, international edition.USA: Mosby; 2007.
    6. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; nineteenth informational supplement.: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2009.
    7. Saed S, Yazdanpanah M, Lal-Dehghani M, Khalighi AR, Honarmand M, Ghazvini K. Emerging Trend of Acinetobacter spp. Causing Nosocomial Infection in Northeast of Iran. J Med Bacteriol. 2013;2((3, 4)).
    8. Kempf M, Rolain JM. Emergence of resistance to carbapenems in Acinetobacter baumannii in Europe: clinical impact and therapeutic options. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2012;39(2):105–14.
    9. Karabay O, Yahyaoglu M, Ogutlu A, Sandikci O, Tuna N, Ceylan S. [Factors associated with mortality in Acinetobacter baumannii infected intensive care unit patients]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2012;46(2):335–7.
    10. Lee YT, Kuo SC, Yang SP, Lin YT, Tseng FC, Chen TL, et al. Impact of appropriate antimicrobial therapy on mortality associated with Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia: relation to severity of infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(2):209–15.
    11. Rahbar M, Mehrgan H, Aliakbari NH. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a 1000-bed tertiary care hospital in Tehran, Iran. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010;53(2):290–3.
    12. Mohammadtaheri Z, Pourpaki M, Mohammadi F, Namdar R, Masjedi MR. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility among bacterial isolates from intensive care unit patients of a tertiary-care university hospital in Iran: 2006-2009. Chemotherapy. 2010;56(6):478–84.
    13. Soroush S, Haghi-Ashtiani MT, Taheri-Kalani M, Emaneini M, Aligholi M, Sadeghifard N, et al. Antimicrobial resistance of nosocomial strain of Acinetobacter baumannii in Children's Medical Center of Tehran: a 6-year prospective study. Acta Med Iran. 2010;48(3):178–84.
    14. Vahdani P, Yaghoubi T, Aminzadeh Z. Hospital acquired antibiotic-resistant acinetobacter baumannii infections in a 400-bed hospital in Tehran, Iran. Int J Prev Med. 2011;2(3):127–30.
    15. Manchanda V, Sanchaita S, Singh N. Multidrug resistant acinetobacter. J Glob Infect Dis. 2010;2(3):291–304.