Context: Iran has been known as one of the most common areas of esophageal cancer in the world. Actually, North of Iran is well known as a high-incidence endemic region located on the belt of esophagus cancer which is extended from the north of China to the south of Caspian Sea. Evidence Acquisition: This paper is going to have an overview on the esophageal cancer in Iran through reviewing the results of some new researches have been completed in recent years in Khorasan, Iran. Results: Epidemiology of esophageal cancer has been changing in recent years in Khorasan, Iran and the incidence rate of the disease is declining. Although the exact reasons for the high incidence rate and yet for declining incidence of the disease are not known, there has been some points of view for this evolution. Still the great majority of esophageal cancers are squamous cell carcinoma and the females and males are almost equally involved in the disease. The most interesting aspect of the disease in this region is long survival of most of the patients. Conclusion: It seems there are some differences in esophageal cancer disease between Iran and other countries especially western onesin terms of the etiologic risk factors of the disease, some of its epidemiologic aspects, as well as outcome of the disease which seems to be better in Iran.
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