The Effectiveness of Group Reality Therapy on Personal Identity Crisis Improvement with an Emphasis on Life Expectancy


1 Ph.D , Associate Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Ph.D , Professor of Counseling, Department of Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Counseling, Islamic Azad University of Quchan, Quchan, IR Iran


Background: Considering the importance of adolescence and in which identity formation occurs and effects of successful identity on adolescents Life expectancy, one common technique for reduction and resolving identity crisis is to use the reality therapy. Objectives: The present study investigates the effectiveness of group reality therapy approach in reduction of personal identity crisis with emphasis on Life expectancy for the future. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study, which was carried out by pre-test and post-test with experimental and control group. The statistical population consisted of high school girl students of Mashhad in 2014-2015 educational years. Participants were selected using convenience sampling method. From all grades, two first grades, one second grade and two third grades were randomly selected (totally 125 students). 22 students who answered the personal identity questionnaire and received the highest score, were divided into 2 groups of 11 (experimental and control) using random assignment. The experimental group received 10 sessions of 90-min group reality therapy, while the control group received no therapy. After the completion of therapy, both groups answered the personal identity questionnaire again. Results: The results of ANCOVA test showed that group reality therapy led to reduction of identity crisis in the experimental group (p


1.Okorodudu GN. Influence of parenting styles on adolescent delinquency in delta central senatorial district. Edo J Counsel. 2010;3(1):58-86. doi:10.4314/ejc.v3i1.52682. Rafaee Saeedi N et al. Razavi Int J Med. 2018; 6(4): e63465. 13
2. Melching JA. Exploring parent-adolescent conflict: an examination of correlates and longitudinal predictors in early
adolescence. Louisiana: The University of New Orleans; 2011.
3. Koerner AF, Maki L. Family communication patterns & social support in families of origin & adult children subsequent
intimate relationships. The International Association for Relationship ResearchConference, Madison, WI; July 22-25,
4. Sartor CE, Youniss J. The relationship between positive parental involvement and identity achievement during adolescence. Adolescence. 2002;37(146):221. [PubMed:12144156].
5. Branje SJ, van Doorn M, van der Valk I, Meeus W. Parentadolescent conflicts, conflict resolution types, and adolescent adjustment. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2009;30(2):195-204. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.004.
6. Zimmermann P, Becker-Stoll F. Stability of attachment representations during adolescence: the influence of egoidentity status. J Adolesc. 2002;25(1):107-24. doi:10.1006/ jado.2001.0452. [PubMed:12009753].
7. Glasser W. Reality therapy. Australia: The Glasser Institute;2003.
8. Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ. Synopsis of psychiatry: behavioral sciences clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins
Co; 1988.
9. Martinez RO, Dukes RL. The effects of ethnic identity, ethnicity, and gender on adolescent well-being. J Youth Adolesc.
1997;26(5):503-16. doi: 10.1023/A:1024525821078.
10. Ogden J. Health psychology. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill;2007.
11. Raleigh E Sources of hope in chronic illness. Oncol Nurs Forum.1992;19(3):443-8. [PubMed:1594466].
12. Marcia J, Waterman AS, Matteson DR, Archer SL, Orlofsky JL. Ego identity: ahandbook for psychosocial research. New York: Springer Science & Business Media; 2012.
13. Kim KH. The effect of a reality program on the responsibility for elementary school children in Korea. Int J Real Ther.
14. Glasser W. Counseling with choice theory. Int J Real Ther. 2006;25(3):43-5.
15. Wubbolding RE, Brickell J, Imhof L, Kim RI, Lojk L, Al-Rashidi B. Reality therapy: aglobal perspective. Int J Adv Counsel. 2004; 26(3):219-28. doi:10.1023/B:ADCO.0000035526.02422.0d.
16. Corey G. Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Canada: Nelson Education; 2015.
17. Husaini BA, Cummings S, Kilbourne B, Roback H, Sherkat D, Levine R, et al. Group therapy for depressed elderly women. Int J Group Psychother. 2004;54(3):295-319. doi:10.1521/ijgp. [PubMed:15253507].
18. Sadat Bari N, Bahrinian A, Azargon H, Abedi H, Aghaei F. The effectiveness of reality therapy on resiliency of divorced
women in Neyshabour city. Int Res J Appl Basic Sci. 2013; 6(2):160-4.
19. Far NS, Sheikhi H, Pour ZJ. Effectiveness of group reality therapy in increasing the students' happiness. Int J Psychol
Behav Res. 2013;2(2):65-70.
20. Hakak NM. Effectiveness of group reality therapy in increasing thestudents' happiness. Life Sci J. 2013;10(1):1-4.
21. Kianipour O, Hoseini B. An examination of the effectiveness of choice theory on teachers'teaching effectiveness and
students'subsequent academic achievement. Int J Choice Theory Real Ther. 2012;31(2):55.
22. Pasha GR, Amini S. The effects of reality therapy on and anxiety in martyrs wives. J SocPsychol. 2008;3(9):37-50.
23. DeBor L, Gallagher D, Lesher E. Group counseling with bereaving elderly. Clin Gerontol. 1983;1(3):81-90. doi:10.1300/
24. Markides KS, Rudkin L, Angel RJ, Espino DV. Health status of hispanic elderly. Racial and ethnic differences in the health of older Americans. Washington, D.C.: National Academies
Press; 1997. P. 285-300.
25. Schwartz K. Remembering the forgotten: psychotherapy groups for the nursing home resident. Int J Group Psychother. 2007;57(4):497-514. doi:10.1521/ijgp.2007.57.4.497. [PubMed: 17937510].
26. Ahmadi A, Rezvani M. The impact of reality therapy group training on the identity crisis of university students. J Counsel Res. 1999;1(3-4):27-41.
27. Brace N, Camp R, Salengar R. Analysis of psychological data by SPSS. 3rd ed. Tehran: Doran; 2011.
28. Moradi SF, Ghanbari HB, Aghamohammadian SH. The effectiveness of reality therapy group training on the
enhancement of the selfesteem of a group of students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Stud Educ Psychol.