The Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on Body Image inWomen between the Ages of Thirty and Forty after Beauty Surgeries


1 Faculty Member, Department of General Psychology, College of Psychology and Social Sciences, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of General Psychology, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran


Abstract Background: In the 20th century, especially over the last decades, there have been new interpretations of beauty; and beauty is defined to include a set of components such as fitness, using cosmetics, clothing, attractiveness, and physical perfection. Objectives: The present study was aimed to examine the effect of acceptance-based and commitment-based therapy on body image in women between the ages of thirty and forty after beauty surgeries. Methods: This research was semi-experimental, using a pre-test post-test design, with a control group. The statistical population consisted of all individuals who visited Sepita Skin and Health Care Clinic, from whom 15 women were considered for a control group and 15 women were considered for an experiment group. Data collection tools included a body image questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a single-variable covariance analysis method. Results: The results of body image covariance analysis (ANCOVA) show that there is a significant difference between body image mean values in control and experiment groups, in terms of post-test scores. The women of the experiment group had a better condition than the women of the control group in terms of body image. Conclusions: Based on findings, it can be stated that commitment-based and acceptance-based therapy affects body image in women between the ages of thirty and forty after beauty surgeries.


  1. 1.Wolpe PR. Treatment, enhancement, and the ethics of neurotherapeutics. Brain Cogn. 2002;50(3):387–95. [PubMed: 12480485].

    1. Jourabchi K. Rhinoplast. Yes or No? Tehran: Pour Sina; 1999. pp. 11–84.
    2. Patton GC, Selzer R, Coffey C, Carlin JB, Wolfe R. Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years. BMJ. 1999;318(7186):765–8. [PubMed: 10082698].
    3. Li J, Li Q, Zhou B, Gao Y, Ma J, Li J. Predictive factors for cosmetic surgery: a hospital-based investigation. Springerplus. 2016;5(1):1543. doi: 10.1186/s40064-016-3188-z. [PubMed: 27652116]. 5. Silveira ML, Ertel KA, Dole N, Chasan-Taber L. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2015;18(3):409–21. doi: 10.1007/s00737- 015-0525-0. [PubMed: 25895137].
    4. Webb JB, Butler-Ajibade P, Robinson SA. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter? Body Image. 2014;11(4):426–37. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.07.002. [PubMed: 25079011].
    5. Baghooli H. Examination of the effect of acceptance-commitmentbased therapy on reducing symptoms and increasing life quality in adult patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.Well-being and Rehabilitation Sciences University - Psychology and Education Sciences College; 2014.
    6. Alleva JM, Sheeran P, Webb TL, Martijn C, Miles E. A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image. PLoS One. 2015;10(9):e0139177. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139177. [PubMed: 26418470].
    7. Kedia G, Mussweiler T, Mullins P, Linden DEJ. The neural correlates of beauty comparison. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014;9(5):681–8. doi: 10.1093/scan/nst026.
    8. Nejadsarvari N, Ebrahimi A, Ebrahimi A, Hashem-Zade H. Medical Ethics in Plastic Surgery: A Mini Review. World J Plast Surg. 2016;5(3):207–12. [PubMed: 27853683].
    9. Fingeret MC, Yuan Y, Urbauer D, Weston J, Nipomnick S, Weber R. The nature and extent of body image concerns among surgically treated patients with head and neck cancer. Psychooncology. 2012;21(8):836– 44. doi: 10.1002/pon.1990. [PubMed: 21706673].
    10. Marsh HW. Age and gender effects in physical self-concepts for adolescent elite athletes and nonathletes: A multicohort-multioccasion design. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1998. 4 Razavi Int J Med. 2017; 5(3):e62159. Ziaei F and Nickname M
    11. Sarwer DB, Cash TF, Magee L, Williams EF, Thompson JK, Roehrig M, et al. Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115(3):931–8. [PubMed: 15731697].
    12. Craske MG, Niles AN, Burklund LJ, Wolitzky-Taylor KB, Vilardaga JC, Arch JJ, et al. Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for social phobia: outcomes and moderators. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2014;82(6):1034–48. doi: 10.1037/a0037212. [PubMed: 24999670].
    13. Gaudiano BA, Herbert JD, Hayes SC. Is it the symptom or the relation to it? Investigating potential mediators of change in acceptance and commitment therapy for psychosis. Behav Ther. 2010;41(4):543– 54. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2010.03.001. [PubMed: 21035617].
    14. Stotts AL, Green C, Masuda A, Grabowski J, Wilson K, Northrup TF, et al. A stage I pilot study of acceptance and commitment therapy for methadone detoxification. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;125(3):215–22. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.02.015. [PubMed: 22425411].
    15. Bricker JB, Mull KE, Kientz JA, Vilardaga R, Mercer LD, Akioka KJ, et al. Randomized, controlled pilot trial of a smartphone app for smoking cessation using acceptance and commitment therapy. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;143:87–94. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.07.006. [PubMed: 25085225].
    16. Keng SL, Smoski MJ, Robins CJ. Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31(6):1041–56. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006. [PubMed: 21802619].
    17. Vallis M, Ruggiero L, Greene G, Jones H, Zinman B, Rossi S, et al. Stages of change for healthy eating in diabetes: relation to demographic, eating-related, health care utilization, and psychosocial factors. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(5):1468–74. [PubMed: 12716806].
    18. Sclafani AP, Kyle S, Choe MD. Psychological aspects of plastic surgery. Recuperado el. 2005;29. 21. de Vries DA, Peter J, de Graaf H, Nikken P. Adolescents’ Social Network Site Use, Peer Appearance-Related Feedback, and Body Dissatisfaction: Testing a Mediation Model. J Youth Adolesc. 2016;45(1):211–24. doi: 10.1007/s10964-015-0266-4. [PubMed: 25788122].
    19. Phillips KA. Understanding body dysmorphic disorder. Oxford University Press; 2009.
    20. Littleton H, Breitkopf CR. The Body Image Concern Inventory: validation in a multiethnic sample and initial development of a Spanish language version. Body Image. 2008;5(4):381–8. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.06.004. [PubMed: 18753021].
    21. Fingeret MC, Teo I, Epner DE. Managing body image difficulties of adult cancer patients: lessons from available research. Cancer. 2014;120(5):633–41. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28469. [PubMed: 24895287].
    22. Tiggemann M, Rüütel E. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Body Dissatisfaction in Estonian and Australian Young Adults and its Relationship with Media Exposure. J Cross Cultur Psychol. 2016;32(6):736–42. doi: 10.1177/0022022101032006007.
    23. Adams CE, Benitez L, Kinsaul J, Apperson McVay M, Barbry A, Thibodeaux A, et al. Effects of Brief Mindfulness Instructions on Reactions to Body Image Stimuli Among Female Smokers: An Experimental Study. Nicotine Tobacco Res. 2012;15(2):376–84. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts133.
    24. Dijkstra P, Barelds DP. Examining a model of dispositional mindfulness, body comparison, and body satisfaction. Body Image. 2011;8(4):419–22. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.05.007. [PubMed: 21768002].