The Effectiveness of Teaching Self-adjustment-based Learning Strategies in Understanding Students’ Competencies and Motivational Beliefs


1 Faculty Member, Department of General Psychology, College of Psychology and Social Sciences, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of General Psychology, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Abstract Background: Self-adjustment-based learning is an important educational, scholarly, and experimental approach in educative, cognitive, and clinical psychology. Objectives: The present study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of teaching self-adjustment-based learning strategies in understanding of Islamic Azad University’s (Research and Science Unit in Tehran) students’ competencies and motivational beliefs. Methods: Research method was practical in terms of objective; and in terms of data collection method, it was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test type. The statistical population of the study consisted of all psychology students in Islamic Azad University, from whom 30 individuals were selected for a control group (15 individuals) and an experimental group (15 individuals), using a convenience sampling method. Data were collected using a self-made questionnaire for competency comprehension and Pintrich and DeGroot’s motivational strategies for learning questionnaire. The analysis of the obtained data was done through SPSS software in two sections: descriptive (frequency, percentile frequency, mean, standard deviation, and variations) and inferential (covariance analysis). Results: Results showed that teaching self-adjustment-based learning strategies affects Islamic Azad University’s psychology students’ understanding of competencies and motivational beliefs. In addition, findings showed that due to self-adjustment-based learning strategies, students’ understanding of competencies increased. Conclusions: Teaching self-adjustment-based learning strategies helps to enhance motivational beliefs.


  1. 1.Teixeira PJ, Silva MN, Mata J, Palmeira AL, Markland D. Motivation, selfdetermination, and long-term weight control. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:22. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-22. [PubMed: 22385818].

    1. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics. 6th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education; 2012.
    2. Gutierrez M, Ruiz LM, Lopez E. Perceptions of motivational climate and teachers’ strategies to sustain discipline as predictors of intrinsic motivation in physical education. Span J Psychol. 2010;13(2):597–608. doi: 10.1017/S1138741600002274. [PubMed: 20977010].
    3. Kusurkar RA, Croiset G, Ten Cate TJ. Twelve tips to stimulate intrinsic motivation in students through autonomy-supportive classroom teaching derived from self-determination theory. Med Teach. 2011;33(12):978–82. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2011.599896. [PubMed: 22225435].
    4. Carreira JM. Motivational orienations and psychological needs in EFL learning among elementary school students in Japan. Sys. 2012;40(2):191–202. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2012.02.001.
    5. Dianati M, Erfani M. Competency; Concepts and Applications [In Persian]. Tadbir Monthly Mag. 2009(206):14–9.
    6. Baudson TG, Weber KE, Freund PA. More Than Only Skin Deep: Appearance Self-Concept Predicts Most of Secondary School Students’ Self-Esteem. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1568. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01568. [PubMed: 27803681].
    7. Fernandez-Rio J, Cecchini JA, Mendez-Gimenez A, Mendez-Alonso D, Prieto JA. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure. Front Psychol. 2017;8:22. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00022. [PubMed: 28154544].
    8. Stacey FG, James EL, Chapman K, Courneya KS, Lubans DR. A systematic review and meta-analysis of social cognitive theory-based physical activity and/or nutrition behavior change interventions for cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv. 2015;9(2):305–38. doi: 10.1007/s11764-014- 0413-z. [PubMed: 25432633].
    9. Heikkilä A, Lonka K. Studying in higher education: students’ approaches to learning, self-regulation, and cognitive strategies. Stud High Educ. 2006;31(1):99–117. doi: 10.1080/03075070500392433.
    10. Ames C, Archer J. Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. J Educ Psychol. 1988;80(3):260–7. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.80.3.260.
    11. Azevedo ÂS, Dias PC, Salgado A, Guimarães T, Lima I, Barbosa A. Teacher-student relationship and self-regulated learning in Portuguese compulsory education. Paidéia. 2012;22(52):197–206. doi: 10.1590/s0103-863x2012000200006.
    12. Kramarski B, Desoete A, Bannert M, Narciss S, Perry N. New perspectives on integrating self-regulated learning at school. Educ Res Int. 2013;2013:1–4. doi: 10.1155/2013/498214.
    13. Seif AA. Novel educational psychology. Tehran: Doran; 2013.
    14. Alexiou A, Paraskeva F, editors. Exploitingmotivation and self-efficacy through the implementation of a self-regulated oriented, Portfolio. The International Conference on E-Learning in the Workplace. 2013; New York, NY, USA. .
    15. Katz I, Eilot K, Nevo N. “I’ll do it later”: Type of motivation, selfefficacy and homework procrastination. Motiv Emot. 2013;38(1):111–9. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9366-1.
    16. Park SW, Sperling RA. Academic procrastinators and their selfregulation. Psychol. 2012;03(01):12–23. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.31003.
    17. Naseri Jahromi R, Marzughi RA, Rasekh Jahromi A. The intermediary role of self-adjustment-based learning strategies in the relationship between PhD medical students’ motivational beliefs and educational values. Case Study. Jahrom Med Sci Univ. 2015;8(17):102–12.
    18. Karimi Monghi H, Muhammadi A, Saleh Moghaddam A, Ghlami H, Karshki H, Zamanian N. Comparison of the effect of teaching in a corporate learning style and giving lectures on motivational beliefs and self-adjustment-based learning strategies. Iran Mag Educ Med Sci. 2014;14(5):393–402. 20. Muhammadi Darvish Baghal N, Hatami H, Asadzadeh H, Ahadi H. A study of the effect of teaching (cognitive and metacognitive) selfregulation strategies on high school students’ motivational beliefs (educational motivation, self-efficacy, test anxiety). Q Educ Psychol. 2013;9(27):49–66. Razavi Int J Med. 2017; 5(3):e62158. 5 Parhami Alamdari P and Nickname M
    19. Mostafa Sarbaz Z, Abolghasemi A, Rostam Oghli S. Comparison of selfadjustment strategies, creative thinking and goal-orientation in children with and without math disorder. Learn Disabilities. 2014;3(3):68– 78.
    20. Hossein Nejhad AA, Hosseinimehr M. Effect of motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning strategies on achievement motivation of student in physical education schools (Application of structural equations). App Sci Report. 2015;10(1):1–7. doi: 10.15192/pscp.asr.2015.10.1.17.
    21. Bahador Motlagh E, Attari Y, Bahador Motlagh G. Effectiveness of teaching self-adjusted-based learning strategies in students’ competency comprehension. J Iran Psychol. 2012;9(33):39–46.
    22. Salehi L, Seif D. Pattern for predicting loneliness based on the interactions of teachers and students, and dimensions such as competency comprehension among adolescents with and without impaired eyesight. Psychol Excep People. 2012;2(5):43–64. 25. Asgari M, Mirmohummadi S, Mazloomi A. Effect of teaching selfadjustment-based learning strategies on Arak’s female students’ (third period of junior high) self-concept and progress in math. Educ Psychol Q. 2011;7(21):25–46. 26. Pintrich PR, de Groot EV. Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. J Educ Psychol. 1990;82(1):33–40. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.82.1.33.
    23. Samruayruen B, Enriquez J, Natakuatoong O, Samruayruen K. Selfregulated learning: A key of a successful learner in online learning environments in Thailand. J Educ Comput Res. 2013;48(1):45–69. doi: 10.2190/EC.48.1.c.
    24. Virtanen P, Nevgi A, Niemi H. Self-regulation in higher education: Students’ motivational, regulational and learning strategies, and their relationships to study success. Stud Learn Soc. 2015;3(1-2):20–34. doi: 10.2478/sls-2013-0004.