Comparing Personality Traits, Mental Health and Self-Esteem in Users and Non-Users of Social Networks


1 MA Student in Personality Psychology, Islamic Azad University, North Branch, Psychology Group, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, North Branch, Psychology Group, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Psychology Group, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Iran


Abstract Background: Various aspects of the psychological component have been affected by the spread of social networks and using these networks by the students. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the personality traits, mental health and self-esteem in users and non-users of social networks. Methods: This study conducted as a casual-comparative study among the descriptive designs. In this regard, 372 female high school students studying in the school year 2015 - 2016 were selected from the Instagram and Telegram users of the social networks using multi-stage cluster sampling. Self-made demographic information questionnaire for the participants, Rosenberg questionnaire for evaluating self-esteem index, Hegzako questionnaire for personality traits and Goldberg mental health questionnaire for mental health index were used in the study. Data were analyzed by chi-square, analysis of variance and Bonferroni test. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between users and non-users groups in terms of openness personality component (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in four components of mental health (P < 0.01). There was also a significant difference for self-esteem index between two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study emphasize the attention to psychological factors in planning of preventive interventions.


  1. 1.Nam S, Redeker N, Whittemore R. Social networks and future direction for obesity research: A scoping review. Nurs Outlook. 2015;63(3):299–317. doi: 10.1016/j.outlook.2014.11.001. [PubMed: 25982770].

    1. Clark LA, Vanderbleek EN, Shapiro JL, Nuzum H, Allen X, Daly E, et al. The Brave New World of Personality Disorder-Trait Specified: Effects of Additional Definitions on Coverage, Prevalence, and Comorbidity. Psychopathol Rev. 2015;2(1):52–82. doi: 10.5127/pr.036314. [PubMed: 26097740].
    2. Alavi SS, Jannatifard F, Maracy MR, Alaghemandan H, Setare M. Comparison of national and personal identity between person with internet addiction disorder and normal internet users. J Educ Health Promot. 2014;3:42. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.131926. [PubMed: 25013835].
    3. Semrau M, Lempp H, Keynejad R, Evans-Lacko S, Mugisha J, Raja S, et al. Service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16:79. doi: 10.1186/s12913-016-1323-8. [PubMed: 26931580].
    4. Aghili SV, Puri E. Effectiveness of cyberspace on the interpersonal relationship between individual users. Culture Commun Q. 2014;3:26–46.
    5. Blazek M, Besta T. Self-concept clarity and religious orientations: prediction of purpose in life and self-esteem. J Relig Health. 2012;51(3):947–60. doi: 10.1007/s10943-010-9407-y. [PubMed: 20953709].
    6. Palahang H, Neshatdosst HT, Molavi H. Normalization of the questionnaire of 6 factors HEXACO-P-IR among Iranian students. J Psychol Tabriz Univ. 2009;4(16):48–66.
    7. Zamorski MA, Rusu C, Garber BG. Prevalence and correlates of mental health problems in Canadian Forces personnel who deployed in support of the mission in Afghanistan: findings from postdeployment screenings, 2009-2012. Can J Psychiatry. 2014;59(6):319–26. doi: 10.1177/070674371405900605. [PubMed: 25007406].
    8. Cheung P, Spears G. Reliability and validity of the Cambodian version of the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1994;29(2):95–9. [PubMed: 8009326].
    9. Haghighi J. Tenacity and its relationship with mental health components in undergraduate male students. Shahid Chamran Univ J Edu Psychol. 2001;3(6):1–18.
    10. Noorbala AA, Baqeriyazdi SA, Muhammad K. Validation of General Health Questionnaire 28 as a screening tool for psychiatric disorders in Tehran [In Persian]. Hakim Health Sys Res. 2009;11:47–53. 12. Mäkikangas A, Kinnunen U, Feldt T. Self-esteem, dispositional optimism, and health: Evidence from cross-lagged data on employees. J Res Pers. 2004;38(6):556–75. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2004.02.001. 13. Vahdatnia A. A comparative study of self-esteem- self-confidence and sexual satisfaction in women abused by husbands and non-abused women in Tehran. Shahid Beheshti University; 2005. 14. Bohloul N. Validity and reliability of Rosenberg sel-esteem questionnaire for male and female students. Educ Res School Psychol Sci Educ Psychol. 2007;2(3):33–48.
    11. Fathi M, Sohrabi F, Saeidian M. Comparison of Characteristics and identity styles in addicted and non-addicted students to internet [In Persian]. J Behav Sci. 2012;11(2):1–13.
    12. Tamanaiefar MR, Sedighi Arfaie F, Gandomi Z. The relationship between internet addiction and personality traits among high school students [In Persian]. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2012;14(1):67–71. 17. Ahmadi H, editor. Virtual community and identity conflict (opportunities and threats). The first National Congress of cyberspace and social problems emerging. 2012; Tehran. Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor and Social Welfare.
    13. Lee E, Ahn J, Kim YJ. Personality traits and self-presentation at Facebook. Pers Individ Dif. 2014;69:162–7. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.05.020. Razavi Int J Med. 2017; 5(3):e61401. 5 Jafarpour S et al.
    14. Ahn H, Kwolek EA, Bowman ND. Two faces of narcissism on SNS: The distinct effects of vulnerable and grandiose narcissism on SNS privacy control. Comput Human Behav. 2015;45:375–81. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.032.
    15. Tang JH, Chen MC, Yang CY, Chung TY, Lee YA. Personality traits, interpersonal relationships, online social support, and Facebook addiction. Telematic Inform. 2016;33(1):102–8. doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2015.06.003.
    16. Liu D, Baumeister RF. Social networking online and personality of self-worth: A meta-analysis. J Res Pers. 2016;64:79–89. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.024.
    17. Anderson KJ. Internet Use Among College Students: An Exploratory Study. J Am Coll Health. 2001;50(1):21–6. doi: 10.1080/07448480109595707.
    18. Pantic I, Damjanovic A, Todorovic J, Topalovic D, Bojovic-Jovic D, Ristic S, et al. Association between online social networking and depression in high school students: behavioral physiology viewpoint. Psychiatr Danub. 2012;24(1):90–3. [PubMed: 22447092].